Head of Department : Mojgan Fallahi Rad
What is Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system that affects young people. About fifty thousand men and women in Canada are infected with the disease. In this condition, myelin is damaged by the transmission of neural signals over nerve fibers. If myelin damage is minor, neurological messages are transmitted with less disturbances. If myelin is damaged, the scar tissue (wound) replaces myelin, thus transmitting the neural signals May be completely disconnected.
The name of this disease is due to multiple sclerosis, which is caused in many areas of the lesion of the nervous system (multiplex) and scarring, which means hard tissue, the damaged myelin stem. The symptoms of MS, the severity of their incidence, and the course of the disease vary from person to person. Some people have only one or two attacks, and the rest of their lives are asymptomatic. Others may have progressive disease of calm and have no temporary relief.
Multiple sclerosis is a young age-related illness and is most often diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 40, although it may be found in younger people or older than this age range. The average age of the diagnosis is 30 years, compared with 2 men, 3 women suffering from the disease.
A new study suggests that there may be a relationship between the presence of metals such as aluminum and iron in the blood and multiple sclerosis (MS). After examining urine specimens of several MS patients and comparing them with healthy subjects, scientists at Keele University in Staffordshire found that the amounts of aluminum and iron in the urine of patients were significantly higher than in healthy people. Was.
Fatigue in MS
MS patients report fatigue as one of the most common and disabling symptoms of their illness. Studies show that about 95% of patients with this type of fatigue are involved. MS fatigue is also known as libido, and is defined as the lack of physical or mental energy of an individual that results in stopping the patient's activities. This fatigue is due to the type of MS, the severity of the disease or the course of the disease and its mechanism is still not clear.
Neuroscientists, while impressively evaluating the result of their research, believe that with this discovery, the mystery of the complexion of the complexion of MS can be uncovered. Because studies have shown that the levels of metals in the body of patients with advanced stages of this degenerative and progressive disease of the nervous system are higher. So it can be concluded that there is a direct relationship between the disease progression and the percentage of the metal present in the body.
There are many factors that make certain people more susceptible to multiple sclerosis than others, although they do not play a role in the development and spread of disease. Individuals with specific species of antigens (H L A antigens) are more susceptible to M S. H L A antigens can be identified in the same test for blood cluster testing. H L A antigens can be identified in a similar experiment to the blood clustering test. H L A antigens are found in specific populations based on the geographical distribution of M S. For example, HL A antigens that are often associated with MS include DW2-B7-A3.
These antigens are common among Eastern European peoples and are less prevalent among South American peoples and are rare in the tropical region. People with M S are more likely to have H L A antigens than others, but in many people who have these antigens M S does not develop. Age also plays a role in the onset of symptoms and progression of M S. About 2/3 MS patients have the first symptoms between the ages of 40 and 20, although sometimes it is not readily apparent until a person aged 45 to 50 is diagnosed and a medical history indicates that the symptoms In the past, however, the symptoms are not so intense or prolonged as a person seeks for doctor's attention. In 3/1 of the remaining symptoms, they are diagnosed before the age of 20 or after 40 years of age.
Differential Diagnoses or Mimicking Diseases M.S.
M.S disease may be mistaken due to multiple symptoms and a variety of pathologies with several other illnesses. Differential diagnosis of M.S. should include diseases that have multiple lesions in the central nervous system or central nervous system diseases with a potentially aggressive enhancer. Among the diseases that are mistaken for MS are systemic lupus, antiphospholipid antibodies, Behcet's disease, Lyme disease (due to bite disease), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Spinal Cord Injury, Cerebral Palsy , Vitamin B12 deficiency, cervical vertebral arthritis, and posterior cranial tumor tumors.
Who is more exposed to MS?
The spread of the disease is different in different parts of the world. For example, in North European countries and in the United States, and people with clear skin, hair and eyes, their prevalence is higher, but it is scarce in black and Japanese. MS also appears to be more common in women than in men, and the onset of it is usually between the ages of 20 and 40. In the case of migraine-associated MS effects seen in individuals who migrated to another country before the age of 15, the prevalence of the disease is similar to that in the newly born people. The disease is more likely to occur in people who have a specific personality. Such people are usually responsible but sensitive, they are very self-sacrificing when they have troubles.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
The virus has been associated with MS, and some scientists have emphasized the role of the virus in the development and etiology of MS. The virus belongs to the family of herpes and initially as a major single-core agent? The disease is known as mononucleosis. EBV is the cause of other diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders.
EBV is very common and more than 95% of people under 40 years of age are infected with the virus in the United States. The results of two studies at the Harvard School of Nursing show that women with high levels of EBV antibodies in their white blood cell are four times more likely to get MS. On the other hand, other studies have shown that people without EBV antibodies have rarely had They are.
These findings do not make viral MS disease definite, while they are reporting on increasing evidence of active viruses or viral antibodies in MS patients compared with non-MS individuals. Researchers do not know whether the results are the cause of MS illness or its effect. As the MS self-immune system seems overactive, a MS patient is more likely to respond than sleeping viruses to people with more regular immune systems. In any case, these findings lead us to more experiments on the use of antiviral drugs for MS.
1 - The third finding from the studies is how the viruses can trigger a similar pattern of MS suppression and relapse, and the loss of myelin as a disease in animals. Initial experiments were often carried out at the laboratory on experimental animals, which called them a "experimental allergic" Encephalomyelitis (EAE).EAE is an autoimmune disease that is caused by the injection of myelin or certain myelin proteins into healthy animals. These proteins contain the cells of the killed tuberculosis. The EAE resembles MSs and allows researchers to study on many of the areas of mine destruction. There is, however, a great deal of difference between the two diseases, and the drugs that are effective on EAE have little effect on MS.
Another experimental model of the virus is Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TMEV), which can be induced by intracerebral intestinal motility in susceptible mice that can develop the mode of swelling and myelination of inflammation and demyelination that occurs in MS.
These empirical MS models give researchers insight into the cellular processes that occur in MS. These models are also vital to finding new treatments before being tested on humans because they enable researchers to study on a variety of drugs in terms of being safe, efficient, and responsive to medicine.
Technically, MS can be considered as a complete type of allergy, but this kind of allergy is different from the allergy that we traditionally have from external substances such as pollen and dust. Instead, this kind of allergy is self-immune and occurs when a person Sensitive to your body tissues and antibodies to attack healthy cells in your body.
MS triggers antibodies that attack the Mylene and Axon. Other autoimmune diseases include fever, joint pain, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and myasthenia gravis.
Trauma hit or wound
The idea of injury, or even a psychological stress attack for MS or MS excitement has long been the subject of controversy between researchers, physicians and patients. A large number of studies have been conducted to provide a deeper insight into this theory. In most cases, the results were uncertain, although many MS patients had a traumatic event or a stressful event that caused or worsened their MS. They are certifying.
Vascular vascular vascular
In connection with circulation, a vascular or vascular agent for MS has been considered to be unrelated until recently. A study found that about 50% of MS patients reported migraine headaches, while another study found that migraine headaches were more common in MS patients than in control groups more than twice as many. More than one third of patients stated that they had migraine before diagnosis of MS, and 20% reported having a family history of migraine versus 10% of the control group.
This new information is likely to lead us to a vascular connection in a subset of MS patients. One explanation may be that the genetic factors of MS are migraine-causing agents. However, there is no accidental association.
MS may be a disease that initially begins with a slow-acting virus and then leads to an autoimmune disorder in genetically predisposed individuals. Part of MS attacks occur almost immediately after a viral illness, such as a cold or a flu. If the immune system is exposed to a slow-acting virus, a viral disease is likely to contribute to the development of MS worse.
A theory maintains the idea that the immune system mistakenly corrects part of a myelin, which is like a virus (molecular mimicry). The immune system then mistakenly destroys myelin. Another tincture begins with a lesion in the heart of the heart caused by a viral infection, and then releases some of the myelin in the bloodstream, resulting in the response of the immune system to the fight against foreign substances.
In addition, it activates viral infections of T-lymphocytes, resulting in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) released. IFN-gamma is a cytokine that stimulates the immune system to target and destroy the cells. Clinical studies have shown that IFN-gamma treats MS worsening.
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is also produced in the body, reducing MS by reducing targets, calming the BBB (blood-brain barrier) repair and reducing cytokine-induced swelling. Three types of IFN-BETA drugs are beta-3-azone-anonox and rebif, all of which have been approved for the long-term treatment of MS-suppressive relapsing-remitting MS.