Head of Department : Robida SadeghZadeh
(Gastrointestinal inflammation), an acute viral gastroenteritis is an infectious disease that usually causes watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps and vomiting.
There may also be flu-like symptoms-including fever and chills-that last for one day or more.
Since the disease is caused by the virus, antibiotics do not affect this kind of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines).
This disease should be left to self-improvement.
Treatment should focus on replacing water and distilled water from diarrhea to prevent dehydration.
If the dehydration is intense, intravenous fluid (therapeutic) and hospitalization may be needed.
Signs and symptoms
* Sudden vomiting
* Sudden diarrhea
* High tab, lower tab or no tab
* Having low blood levels in vomiting
* By restricting your baby's diet to simple diluents, treat her diarrhea and vomiting. Do not give cats milk or foods that contain cow's milk.
* To prevent dehydration (excessive body fluid loss), give the baby plenty of dilute fluids such as tea, water jelly and electrolytic solutions such as ORL (available from the pharmacy).
* Give the baby a fever, acetaminophen, not aspirin
Caution in gastroenteritis
* After contacting the baby, wash your hands thoroughly.
* Commonly, the condition is more severe in infants with a lower risk of dehydration.
* If this condition is present in the infant, see a doctor if you have any signs of dehydration.
* Do not give children anti diarrheal medications.
* If there was blood in the stool, the fever was high, there was severe weakness or severe diarrhea; see a doctor. (Failure to visit a physician is more than 12 to 24 hours long for a baby or more than two to three days longer for a larger baby).
General awareness about gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis is the same as the inflammation of the stomach and intestines, which is associated with several factors:
* Water and food contaminated with bacteria and parasites,
* Response to a new food.
* Some children may develop symptoms of a new type of food when they are taking it. Even in some cases, - in children fed with breastfeeding, these symptoms are also seen following a new mother's diet.
* Side effects of some medications
Symptoms include nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. In some cases, a mild fever may also be present. Symptoms may last from one day to more than a week.
If you have symptoms of this disease, do the following:
* For several hours, stop eating and drinking until the stomach is resting.
* In order to prevent dehydration, apply a lot of fluids.
* Gradually start eating fast foods such as toasted bread, bananas, rice and honey.
* Use acetaminophen to relieve pain or fever.
* Dehydration can cause you weakness and fatigue, so relax.
See more than two days for vomiting, diarrhea more than several days, bloody diarrhea, fever over 38 ° C, severe abdominal pain, fainting and dizziness.
When the child gets gastroenteritis
* Let him rest.
* After the vomiting has stopped, start using the serum.
* Do not use water alone for treatment.
* In children with gastroenteritis, water can not be well absorbed.
* Also avoid drinking juice and milk that can cause diarrhea.
* Start feeding on light foods such as rice, banana and potatoes.
* Avoid giving sweet foods such as ice cream and chocolate, as they cause diarrhea.
* If your child has a mild fever, use acetaminophen.
* If you are severely ill, consult your doctor.
Frequently Asked Questions on Gastroenteritis?
What does "Gastro Anthritis" mean?
Gastroenteritis means inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines).
This is a scientific term and its literal translation is diarrhea and vomiting.
What are its symptoms in children?
In this chapter, where the season is prevalent, families complain of blood or watery diarrhea and occasionally vomiting and, in some cases, complain of both of these symptoms in their children.
How much and what type of diarrhea is excreted?
At an early age, increasing the frequency and amount of stool water is important to define diarrhea.
In diarrhea, the stool is loose and watery and more frequent than before.
Why is gastroenteritis more prevalent in the summer?
The causes of diarrhea and vomiting are divided into infectious and non-infectious; infectious agents are more common and acute and sudden diarrhea persists in a short time. And among the infectious agents, viruses in all seasons cause diarrhea, causing diarrhea in the summer of more "antiviruses" and in the winter of "rotaviruses".
Bacterial agents and some parasites also cause diarrhea. On the other hand, some germs grow on foods in the summer and produce toxic substances called toxins that cause diarrhea.
How do these pathogens work in the body?
When the pathogen is injected into the body or disturbs absorption, it causes excessive fluid release into the digestive tract, or both systems are activated. Increasing intestinal mobility can also be effective in childhood diarrhea.
What should I do to prevent?
Prevention is always prior to treatment.
In the warm season, we emphasize breastfeeding for our infants, especially in the first 6 months of the infant who even recommend breastfeeding. Breast milk can greatly prevent infectious diseases such as diarrhea and vomiting, and after 6 months of breastfeeding, we add up to 2 years of supplementary food.
The other thing is the way to make baby food. In the warm season, the food should be freshly prepared and keep the kids out of the refrigerator. Avoid consuming suspected foods that are being sold out. Ready-made foods, especially sausages and sandwiches, should not be too much for the kids. Ice cream is used extensively this season, which is why the pasteurization of ice cream is very important.
Traveling in the summer is high, and it should be avoided to use the contaminated ice, especially the factory ice that it is unclear how they prepared the ice. Use ice indirectly to cool water and beverages; put a bottle of water in ice, not ice in a glass of water. If in some cases we suspect water pollution, boil water for 10-15 minutes.
The fruits of this season do not have the ability to wash up, and their skin is not harvested, such as berries, strawberries, apricots and cherries, which is why they may become contaminated after washing.
We do not recommend eating these fruits to infants under one year of age, and it is recommended to eat them with caution for older children. Despite all these recommendations, diarrhea and vomiting are among the most common diseases, but its mortality rate has declined worldwide. In the past not so long ago, the disease has been one of the most common causes of child deaths, which has declined dramatically due to the development of health and mortality. Another thing that is remarkable in the heat season is that heat dissipation can cause diarrhea and vomiting. We recommend that children under the age of one year do not go out in warm hours during the day (9am to 6pm), and if you have, prepare a suitable shade place for them and do not keep children in the sun and Keep healthy fluids.
What are the disadvantages of diarrhea and vomiting for children?
The most common complication is diarrhea and vomiting, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. Even with mild diarrhea, too much fluid passes out of the patient's body, and dehydration has a degree that can be tolerated at a low level, but its moderate and severe levels are dangerous and the most important cause of death and disability in children. . In the course of diarrhea, nothing is as important as the fluid lost. It is not true if the drug is prescribed to stop diarrhea. The compensation of these fluids is not effective in any way, except with serum therapy. I mean, most of my diet is to be injected, unless the child is very ill with the use of an injectable serum. ORS Oral Serums that are both affordable and inexpensive and easy to make use of. ORS will actually save the lives of children with diarrhea and vomiting. Although it may not reduce the duration of diarrhea.
Some diarrhea should be taken into consideration. Such as diarrhea that:
1) It is intense and sudden and it has a lot of volume, and in a short time it will dampen the baby.
2) Blood and mucus excretion in the stool
3) Diarrhea associated with severe vomiting.
4) Diarrhea due to poisoning.
In addition to ORS, children should be given water, dough, fresh tea and other drinks. The important thing is to use only water that has very high levels of solubility and can be very dangerous in diarrhea due to electrolyte and sodium dysfunction and so on, and electrolyte liquids must be used.
Any diarrhea and vomiting is gastroenteritis and is it treated with ORS only?
Not. Each "gastroenteritis" is accompanied by the appearance of diarrhea and vomiting. In fact diarrhea and vomiting are a symptom of systemic disease, which is usually gastroenteritis.
What causes gastroenteritis other than diarrhea and vomiting?
Certain diseases outside of the gastrointestinal tract can be associated with diarrhea and vomiting, such as upper respiratory infection, otitis media, certain hormonal diseases and metabolic diseases, with diarrhea and vomiting, and other gastrointestinal infections.
Now take a little more to cure?
As I said, the first principle of treatment is the same as dehydration. The use of antibiotics is not necessary in most diarrhea, even causing complications because most of the cause of diarrhea is viruses that do not require antibiotics, and many bacteria do not need treatment, and a small number of bacteria with antibodies The biotype is treated, but antibiotics should be used in two cases: bloody diarrhea and cholera. Given the area where cholera is common, the doctor should give antibiotics. But in other cases where the patient is not sick and is being treated for an outpatient, antibiotics are not required, but medicines called anti diarrhea drugs, which are mostly opioid drugs (diphenoxide, etc.), or drugs that reduce bowel movement They are prohibited in acute diarrhea of microbial infants and children as it has irreparable complications and causes poisoning, as well as intestinal paralysis, which causes intestinal paralysis, an opportunity to replenish bacteria, and simple diarrhea to a diarrhea The invader becomes.
If the mother does not have access to primary care, what is the first step?
The first steps of the mother can be described as follows
2) Do not rest on the intestine at all (something that was customary in the old days, and did not give the child milk and liquids), and infuse the child with plenty of fluids. In the worst case diarrhea, 60 to 70 percent of the food is still absorbed, even if nutrition exacerbates diarrhea, but it is important to prevent malnutrition, so it should increase the frequency of nutrition.
3) If vomiting prevents nutrition, it should be given to children with low volumes and frequent volumes that will prevent vomiting.
4) Eating ORS at home is also available (a combination of sugar and salt and water).
5) Give local liquids such as dough and tea
Signs of dehydration include excessive thirst, excessive craving for water, lethargy or severe restlessness, fainting eyes, crying without tears, swollen upper intestine, dry mouth, loss of urine and very wrinkled skin. The mother recognizes these symptoms and takes the necessary action faster.
What is diarrhea and vomiting apart from water disorder and electrolyte?
Several factors can cause diarrhea, such as systemic diarrhea caused by a virus that can cause meninges and brain irritation and cause meningitis and anxiety.
But simple "gastroelectric", which is more likely to cause infectiousness, can cause a child's developmental disorder and malnutrition. If acute diarrhea is not compensated, half to one kilogram of baby's body weight will be reduced in a short time, which will be hard to compensate. And on the other hand, diarrhea causes anorexia, which results in malnutrition and this causes diarrhea again. Diarrhea and malnutrition are a cycle, so diarrhea should not interrupt nutrition and, after a diarrhea, one meal should be added to eat more calories and not just eat our baby. It is now proven that this kind of nutrition is wrong.
What to do in dealing with a patient with diarrhea and vomiting?
First, a full and exhaustive examination of the child should be done, whether there is only diarrhea and vomiting, or there are other symptoms. Diarrhea and vomiting are symptoms of a systemic disorder or simple gastroenteritis. The child's body fluid levels should also be monitored and monitored for extreme cases such as dehydration or symptoms such as reduced consciousness or severe vomiting. In severe dehydration, with a generally poor or shock, intravenous fluid therapy should be used and In severe dehydration, but generally well, intravenous fluid therapy should first be performed, and if the condition is normal, continue oral treatment at home. However, in cases where diarrhea is part of another systemic condition, the patient must definitely be admitted and need more comprehensive examination.
Does diarrhea and vomiting require specific tests?
The doctor can guess what type of diarrhea is on the clinical symptoms.
It is not necessary to test if diarrhea is non-infectious or non-bacterial and general, and the patient does not have a high fever and is able to use oral fluids.
However, in suspected cases of bacterial diarrhea, stool smear is needed that is simple and inexpensive and available and is prepared urgently and promptly. The presence of red blood cells or white or both together in the feces represents a type of inflammatory diarrhea and Or striker in the colon. Existence of some specific parasites also requires treatment.
What is the percentage of death from diarrhea?
Different in different countries. In the past not so far, the first place has been children under the age of five, and despite the many advances in the health sector, hundreds of children are being cashed every year due to complications of acute diarrhea around the world, which in our country Even in deprived areas.
Recommendations for mothers:
It is recommended that mothers feed their children with breast milk. Give fresh food to children and do not give them a night meal. Children's meals in the refrigerator. Do not give away foods like sausages, sausages. If they intend to travel, they are thinking about clean water. Take snacks and ice cream out of the safe place, and do not get rid of children's refreshments.